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Financing climate adaptation in fragile states: A case of Somalia

Briefing/policy papers

Written by Adriana Quevedo, Manisha Gulati, Mauricio Vazquez, Sarah Opitz-Stapleton, Yue Cao

Image credit:CC BY-NC 2.0 Image license:UNDP Somalia

This policy brief, produced as part of Supporting Pastoralism and Agriculture in Recurrent and Protracted Crises (SPARC), outlines some of the key actions the Federal Government of Somalia, and development and humanitarian partners financing climate-related activities can take to accelerate climate action.

Somalia is highly vulnerable to climate hazards, including those made worse by climate change. Despite this, the country receives little climate finance. The drought that began in the country in 2021, which continued at the time of writing in May 2023, and the resulting famine have affected the lives of 6.6 million people or more (IPC, 2023). People in the country face extreme challenges: from loss of livelihoods to hunger, misery, illness and death. All of this is difficult to monetise.

The increase in humanitarian appeals – from US$1.09 billion in 2021 to US$2.27 billion in 2022 (OCHA, 2022) – reflects the need for greater financial support to provide critical resources to these vulnerable people.

The Federal Government of Somalia, and development and humanitarian partners recognise that both slow onset climate stresses and rapid-onset climate shocks exacerbate Somalia’s fragile polity, economy and society. Bilateral and multilateral funding has been vital to financing climate-related activities in Somalia, but there are missed opportunities in acquiring funding and using the scarce finance effectively.

This policy brief identifies entry points of action and recommendations that development and humanitarian actors and the Federal Government can adopt to enable and accelerate access to resources. These recommendations, which aim to build government capacity and improve the quality and relevance of climate adaptation, include:

Authors: Adriana Quevedo, Bahar Ali Kazmi, Faisa Loyaan, Manisha Gulati, Michelle Spearing, Mauricio Vazquez, Nancy Balfour, Sarah Opitz-Stapleton, Yue Cao