This Working Paper analyses Lomé conventions from the point of view of recent signatories like Malawi. Some eight years after Malawi signed the Lomé convention and mid-way through Lomé II, it is useful to assess the results of the new arrangements. What did Lomé appear to offer new signatories such as Malawi and, indeed, what did the Malawi government expect from the conventions? What was It promised, implicitly and explicitly; how have the Lomé Conventions performed; and can Malawi be shown to have drawn specific benefits from the EEC connexion? These are the questions addressed in this paper, which, written at a time when the renegotiation of Lomé II is about to start, concludes by suggesting areas where the Malawi government should argue for Improved arrangements before signing a future co-operation treaty with the EEC.