Social protection continues to be an important policy priority in Indonesia to address persistent poverty and vulnerability. However, very little attention has been paid to date to its role in tackling gendered experiences of poverty. It is often assumed that social protection is already addressing gender because social transfers target women or female-headed households. However, pre-existing intra-household and community dynamics mean that the role that gender relations play in social protection effectiveness is more complex. This affects not only the type of risk tackled but also the impacts of any intervention. Moreover, gender norms and roles may shape the choice of social protection modality or awareness-raising approach, as well as public buy-in.
This report analyses the effectiveness of the Indonesian government’s social protection system related to food insecurity and under-nutrition. As tackling the gendered manifestations of risk and vulnerability has positive spill-over effects on general programme effectiveness, it also assesses the extent to which existing policies and programmes are tackling the gender dimensions of food insecurity and malnutrition.