Our Programmes



Sign up to our newsletter.

Follow ODI

Protracted displacement: uncertain paths to self-reliance in exile

Research reports

Written by Nicholas Crawford

​With more than 60 million refugees and internally displaced persons around the world, more and more people have been displaced for years on end. At the end of 2014, half of all refugees had been in exile for over ten years.


This report maps the global state of protracted displacement, examining patterns and trends in numbers, geographic spread and funding.

This study also reviews current evidence on support for self-reliance and investments in livelihoods amongst people in protracted displacement and suggests ways forward.

It presents a pilot tool to begin understanding the opportunities for self-reliance and livelihood assistance for displaced people. It is a basic typology for where assistance is needed and what kind of assistance may be best suited to the situation at hand.

More on this research

View the infographics, blog and policy brief:

Nicholas Crawford, John Cosgrave, Simone Haysom and Nadine Walicki