This paper, produced as part of the programme Supporting Pastoralism and Agriculture in Recurrent and Protracted Crises (SPARC), draws on interviews with traders and herders in Sudan, and secondary literature, to gain insight into how the suspended Hajj in 2020 affected livestock traders and herders on low incomes.
Pastoralists in Sudan rear large numbers of camels, cattle, sheep and goats. The country exports large numbers of live animals - mainly sheep to Saudi Arabia and camels to Egypt. It also exports chilled and frozen meat, mainly to Saudi Arabia, the Gulf States, and Egypt.
Exports of sheep and meat have multiplied by three or more times since 2000, in a trade that - despite looking informal and low-tech - is worth more than US$400 million a year. It is also a trade that provides income for many herders, including people on low incomes.
The marketing chain is well adapted to pastoralism. Livestock marketing has improved gradually over time, through improved infrastructure and services. For example, asphalted roads and the provision of animal quarantine and vaccination facilities.
Yet, the chain has been heavily disrupted. Herders and traders with few alternatives to selling and trading livestock faced heavy losses during the Rift Valley Fever (RVF) outbreaks of 2007 and 2019 that led to export bans of animals and meat. The Covid pandemic of 2020 with its associated partial suspension of the Hajj in Saudi Arabia, and the resulting collapse in export demand, also hit pastoralists hard.
However, once export bans were lifted, marketing has restored to previous levels, and grown larger. While the export of live animals from Sudan is a growing and profitable business, the risks and disruptions traders and herders face remain large.
This paper draws on interviews with traders and herders across Sudan about their responses to the suspended Hajj. It recommends that policy-makers and those working with livestock herders and traders must explore ways to reduce the occurrence of major shocks, and their severity and costs.
Authors: Alex Humphrey, Carmen Jacquez, Simon Levine, Chloe Stull-Lane, Hussein Sulieman, Steve Wiggins
Impacts of disruptions to livestock marketing in SudanRead more about Impacts of disruptions to livestock marketing in Sudan.