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Drivers of change in gender norms: An annotated bibliography

Research report

Written by Rachel Marcus, Catriona Foley

Research report

​This annotated bibliography highlights selected texts on drivers of change in gender norms.  It summarises some texts that outline recent thinking on social norms and that apply this analysis to understanding why inequitable gender norms persist and when they change.  The work concentrates on large-scale drivers of gender norm change, such as economic change, education, communications, legal change, social and political mobilisation and conflict, rather than on project-based experience.


In general, the articles show that processes of change in gender norms and relations have typically been driven by several factors simultaneously. Of these, education, economic change, exposure to new ideas and political and social mobilisation have often been the most critical.

The bibliography also highlights some texts discussing processes of backlash against egalitarian gender norms.

Rachel Marcus, Ella Page with Rebecca Calder and Catriona Foley