A range of countries have sought more equitable governance of their natural resources, by devolving decision-making and resource control to local populations. In 1994, Cameroon adopted a new law granting local communities the possibility of greater control over forests and wildlife, principally in response to donor conditionality on Structural Adjustment Loans (SALs). However, the enactment of this law lacked significant domestic support. Conflicting interests and Cameroonís highly centralised administrative machinery have prevented effective devolution of wildlife management. This paper examines the opportunities and constraints presented by Cameroonís reform process, in an attempt to encourage the development of a more forward-looking and better-integrated wildlife management policy.