This paper investigated the many uses of trees in shrubs in the High Andes in Peru. Among 400 interviewees, only 19 woody species were mentioned. All were used for fuel, indicating the shortage of trees in the area. Other important uses were as animal fodder, medicines and indicators of growth seasons for crops. All but one species were thought to be declining in abundance, in spite of protective harvesting practices. The ARBOLANDINO Project sought to work with local people to identify new ways of conserving woody vegetation and promoting marketing of tree products.