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Affirmative action, Malaysia

Briefing/policy papers

The NEP consisted of policies covering a number of different areas, including:
• an explicit target to achieve at least 30% Bumiputera ownership of total share capital by 1990, from its level of about 2% in 1970;
• requirements that employment in large, modern-sector firms should reflect the ethnic composition of the country’s population;
• price discrimination in support of Bumiputera-operated businesses (e.g. subsidised loans and credit, financial and management training);
• quotas for ethnic groups in tertiary education enrolment;
• special schemes for the poorest households, including support for petty trading, cottage industries, livestock, and aquaculture.

Zainal Aznam Yusof