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Women and power: what can the numbers tell us about women's voice, leadership and decision-making?

Research reports

Written by Joseph Wales

This briefing provides an overview of existing global indicators for measuring women's voice and leadership.

It outlines the methodological and conceptual issues that should be taken into account when using these indicators and critically examines the current state of available data in terms of the wider universe of proposed indicators.

The briefing and database are available to download below.

Women's voice and leadership indicators database

The database outlines a range of indicators of women’s voice, leadership and decision-making that have been proposed and provides links and details of existing sources of this data.

It was compiled using three major sources of data (i) generic global social, political and economic indicator sets compiled by international organisations; (ii) specific global women’s empowerment indicator sets compiled by international organisations; and (iii) indicators used by academic papers, grey literature and evaluation reports.

Data sources were included where they are publically available, freely accessible online and provide data that is both internationally comparable and has been collected at more than one point in time. While extensive, this is not a comprehensive list of all data sources and the authors would appreciate any references that could help to further close data gaps.

A complete list of indicators is provided in the drop down menus below. The list includes both current indicators with links to the data source, and proposed indicators (designated by N/A for data sources). The accompanying briefing paper provides complete details of the conceptual framework and definitions used, as well as a complete list of sources and analysis of patterns of data coverage.

 

Domains

Frequently asked questions

Economic indicators

IndicatorIndicator TypeAvailable DataSourceAccess to fertiliser and agricultural inputsResource N/AAccounting knowledgeResource N/AAgricultural production rates by genderLeadership/decision making N/AAllocations the state offers for important services, guarantees, and enforcement mechanisms around issues central to gender equityLegal/Rights N/AArea dedicated to traditionally female cropsResource N/AAttitudes to women in labour marketAttitudes N/AAutonomy over use of agricultural incomesLeadership/decision making N/AAvailability of government provided childcareResource N/AAverage household expenditure of female/male headed households on education/health.Leadership/decision making N/AChanges in % of property controlled by women and men (land, houses, livestock), across socio-economic and ethnic groups.Leadership/decision making N/AChanges in % of property owned by women and men (land, houses, livestock), across socio-economic and ethnic groups.Resource N/AChanges in time-use in selected activities, particularly greater sharing by household members of unpaid housework and child-care.Leadership/decision makingNationalILO/EDGEChildcare while working (access and type)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysDecision on use of earnings (Decision maker)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysDistribution of agricultural holders, by sexResourceNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseDistribution of agricultural land area owned, by sexResourceNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseDistribution of agricultural land value owned, by sexResourceNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseDistribution of agricultural landowners, by sexResourceNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseEmployment rate of persons aged 25-49 with a child under age 3 living in a household and with no children living in the household, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGEEqual ability for a woman to get a job or pursue a trade or profession in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual ability for a woman to open a bank account in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual ability for a woman to register a business in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual ability for a woman to sign a contract in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual pay legislationLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseEquality between men and women for private sector employmentParticipationNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseEstimated GNI per capita, by sexResourceNationalUNDP/HDRFear of eviction after divorce, separation or widowhoodAttitudes N/AFemale employment levels and source of earningParticipationNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysFemale professional and technical workers (as percentage of total)Participation N/AGender gap in wagesResourceNationalILO/EDGEImpact of maternity laws on hiring of womenParticipation N/AIncidence of agricultural landownership, by sexResourceNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseIndividual/Joint landholding with spouseResource N/AInformal employment as a proportion of total non-agricultural employment, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGELabour force participation rate for persons aged 15-24, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGELabour force participation rate for persons aged 15+, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGELegal equality of male and female rights to access financial services i.e. credit, bank accounts and loans (impact of customary, traditional and religious practices)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLegal equality of male and female rights to own, use and control land (impact of customary, traditional and religious practices)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLegal equality of male and female rights to own, use and control non-land assets (impact of customary, traditional and religious practices)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLegal quota levels for women on corporate boardsLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegal quotas for the appointment of women in land dispute resolution committeesLegal/RightsNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseLegal quotas for the appointment of women in land management and administration committeesLegal/RightsNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseLegal rights of surviving spouse in terms of rights to the matrimonial house for lifeLegal/RightsNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseLegislation to allow joint tenure for urban and rural property with marital community of property (and joint administration) as the default)Legal/Rights N/ALength of maternity leave (weeks)Legal/RightsNationalOECD IAEG-GSLength of paid paternity leave (weeks)Legal/RightsNationalOECD IAEG-GSManagerial control of farmLeadership/decision making N/AManagerial control of loanLeadership/decision making N/AMarried couples jointly share legal responsibility for financially maintaining the family's expensesLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsMaternity leave benefits (percentage of wages paid in covered period)Legal/Rights N/AOccupation (by gender)ParticipationNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysParental leave with job protection (weeks)Legal/RightsNationalOECD IAEG-GSPercentage distribution of employed population in agricultural sector, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGEPercentage distribution of employed population in industrial sector, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGEPercentage distribution of employed population in service sector, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGEPercentage firms with female top managerLeadership/decision makingNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsPercentage of available credit, financial and technical support services going to women/men from government/non-government sources.Resource N/APercentage of firms owned by women, by sizeLeadership/decision makingNationalILO/EDGEPercentage who believe that men get more opportunities for jobs that pay well, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research CenterPercentage who think that when jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research CenterPercentage who think women should be able to work outside the home, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research CenterPerception of economic autonomyAttitudes N/APossession of formal/legal proof of tenure or ownershipResource N/AProportion of adult population owning land, by sexResourceNationalWorld Bank/EDGEProportion of children under age 3 in formal careResourceNationalOECD/EDGEProportion of employed who are employers, by sexLeadership/decision makingNationalILO/EDGEProportion of employed who are own-account workers, by sexLeadership/decision makingNationalILO/EDGEProportion of employed working part-time, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGEProportion of population with access to credit, by sexResourceNationalWorld Bank/EDGEProportion of women who migrate internationallyParticipation N/AQuota mechanisms for women on corporate boardsLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseRegulations on male/female work hours and rolesLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseRegulations on part-time work (e.g. bans or limitations)Legal/Rights N/ARelative contribution of women’s earnings to household expenditures (For married/living together and otherwise)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysRelative male/female under-employment ratesParticipation N/ARelative poverty of female headed householdsResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysRelative rates of female to male migrationLeadership/decision making N/ARelative size and profitability of female farming plotsResource N/ARelative size and profitability of female owned firms (absolute and sectors)Resource N/A"Representation of women’s economic interests in macroeconomic policies, state and federal budgets"Leadership/decision making N/ASalary/wage differentials between women and men for similar workResource N/ASelf-reported final say in making daily purchases (all women/married/non-married)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSelf-reported final say in making large purchases (all women/married/non-married)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysThe legal framework includes provisions for the promotion of women’s rights to land, property, and/or productive resources.Legal/RightsNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseTotal duration of paid maternity and parental leave (weeks)Legal/RightsNationalOECD IAEG-GSUnder the law of succession, the surviving spouse is entitled to a minimum share of matrimonial propertyLegal/RightsNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseWhether sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights (and impact of traditional/religious/customary law)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexWhether widows and widowers have equal inheritance rights (and impact of traditional/religious/customary law)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexWomen's control over earnings (who decides how to spend money - self/joint with partner etc. For married or living together and not)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysWomen's share of managerial positionsLeadership/decision makingNationalILO/EDGEWomen’s involvement and/or representation in local trade associations and access to marketsParticipation N/AWomen’s representation in high paying jobs; women CEOsParticipation N/AYouth unemployment rate for persons aged 15-24, by sexParticipationNationalILO/EDGE

 

Frequently asked questions

Political indicators

IndicatorIndicator TypeAvailable DataSourceAbility of married woman to convey citizenship to non-national spouse in the same way as a manLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsAbility of woman to confer citizenship to her children in the same way as a man - married/unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsAwareness of own power in relation to others, and reliance of others on them. Ability to see leverage and mutual advantage in joint actions both for self and for others.Attitudes N/ABreakdown of female CSO leadership by service delivery and advocacy organisationsLeadership/decision making N/ABudget size of CSO's led by men and womenLeadership/decision making N/AChief Justice is currently femaleLeadership/decision makingNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsCollective awareness of injustice, potential of mobilizationAttitudes N/A"Community mobilization for rights; campaigns for rights awareness; effective local enforcement of legal rights"Resource N/ACompulsory birth registrationLegal/Rights N/AConstitutional access to public goodsLegal/Rights N/AConstitutional equality - existence of non-discrimination clause, non-discrimination clause mentions gender, guarantee equality before the lawLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsContact with officials, politicians and other leaders, as well as form and reason of contact, by sexLeadership/decision makingNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Customary law - legal recognition of customary law as a source of law, validity/invalidity of customary law where it violates constitutional provisions on non-discrimination/equalityLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsDegree of turnover in women's group leadershipResource N/ADomestic support for political engagementAttitudes N/AEquality of process for men and women when applying for passports and national ID cards - including married/unmarried woman distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsExplicit constitutional provisions or laws on the rights of womenLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsExposure to mass media (newspapers, radio and television; by gender)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysExtent to which officials and politicians listen to people like the respondent, by sexAttitudesNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Extent to which women's groups form larger alliances and coalitions to achieve collective gainsResource N/AFamily support for political engagementAttitudes N/AFemale participation in village meetings (questions, complaints, requests etc.)Participation N/AFunding for gender equality initiativesResource N/AGender equity of evidentiary weight of testimony in courtLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and Statistics"Knowledge of legal rights; domestic support for exercising rights"Resource N/AKnowledge of political system and means of access to it (absolute and relative)Resource N/ALegal quota levels for women in national parliamentLegal/RightsNational & Sub-NationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegal recognition of customary courtsLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegal recognition of personal law courtsLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsNumber for female justices on the constitutional courtLeadership/decision makingNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsNumber of years of a female president or prime minister in the last 50 yearsParticipation N/AParticipation rates in religious groups, voluntary associations or community group, by sexParticipationNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Participation rates in various forms of civic activity, by sexParticipationNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Participation rates in various forms of political activity during the last election, by sexParticipationNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Percentage believe men make better political leaders than women, by sexAttitudesNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Percentage believe women have the same chance of election to office as men , by sexAttitudesNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Percentage of men and women who voted in last election and reasons why, if notLeadership/decision makingNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Percentage of women in decision-making positions in local government.Leadership/decision making N/APercentage of women in senior/junior decision making positions within civil society organisationsLeadership/decision making N/APercentage of women in senior/junior decision making positions within political partiesLeadership/decision making N/APercentage of women in senior/junior decision making positions within unions.Leadership/decision making N/APercentage of women participating in political actions - signing a petition, joining in boycotts, attending peaceful demonstrations, joining strikes, any other (any time and recent, absolute and relative to men)ParticipationNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyPercentage of women who are members of - churches, environmental organisations, humanitarian or charitable organisations, consumer organisations, self-help/mutual aid groups - absolute and relative to menParticipationNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyPercentage of women who are members of professional associations - absolute and relative to menParticipationNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyPercentage of women who are union members - absolute and relative to menParticipationNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyPercentage of women with birth certificatesResource N/APercentage of women/men who are members of political parties - absolute and relative to menParticipationNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyPolitical funding networks/mechanisms for female candidatesResource N/APresence of gender budgetsLegal/Rights N/APresence of machinery to monitor and sanction on equality legislation (e.g. independent ombudsman, political committees, service delivery contracts)Resource N/APresence of specific committees on gender issues with "mainstreaming" missionParticipation N/APresence of strong, autonomous feminist movementsLeadership/decision making N/APresence of women in parliamentary committees and caucusesParticipation N/APresence of women's caucuses (lower/upper house, formal/informal, cross party status, female only status, rules status, presence of strategic plan, presence of communication plan, issues covered - family, gender, other)ParticipationNationalInter-Parliamentary UnionProfiling of women's issues in policymakingLeadership/decision making N/AProportion of candidates for public office that are femaleParticipation N/AProportion of female ministers in charge of "feminine"/"masculine" ministriesLeadership/decision making N/AProportion of female ministers in charge of "high prestige"/"low prestige" ministriesLeadership/decision making N/AProportion of females among tertiary education teachers or professorsLeadership/decision makingNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEProportion of seats held by women in national parliament (upper and lower house)ParticipationNationalInter-Parliamentary Union/EDGEProportion of victorious candidates for public office that are femaleParticipation N/APublic expenditure on female priorities/needsLeadership/decision making N/AQuota mechanisms for representation in local government (party lists, reserved seats, proportion of candidates, voluntary/mandatory etc.)Legal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseQuota mechanisms for representation in national legislature (party lists, reserved seats, proportion of candidates, voluntary/mandatory etc.)Legal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseRepresentation of women’s interests in effective lobbies and interest groupsLeadership/decision making N/ARight to be a member of political partyLegal/Rights N/ARight to hold public officeLegal/Rights N/ASelf-reported percentage of men and women who vote in national electionsLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyShare of female judgesLeadership/decision makingNationalUNODC/EDGEShare of female police officersParticipationNationalUNODC/EDGESignatory of international agreements and principles on women's rights e.g. CEDAW, Beijing Plan for ActionLegal/Rights N/ASkills, confidence, and knowledge to hold duty bearers and the powerful accountable; recognition that human rights bring, also, forms of accountability to every individualAttitudes N/AStrength as a voting blocResource N/AWillingness to complain and take action on issues e.g. health care provisionAttitudes N/AWomen's share of government ministerial positionsLeadership/decision makingNationalInter-Parliamentary Union/EDGEWomen’s participation in peace processes, agreements and negotiationsParticipation N/A

 

Frequently asked questions

Social indicators

IndicatorIndicator TypeAvailable DataSourceAbility to make childbearing decisions: use contraception, access abortionLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysAcceptability of divorceAttitudes N/AAccess to anti-retroviral drug, by sexResourceNationalWHO/EDGEAccess to information and skills that a woman deems helpful or necessary; awareness that such information/skills even existResource N/AActions during pregnancy - food, work and seeking healthcareLeadership/decision making N/AAdjusted net enrolment rate in primary education by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEAdjusted net intake rate to the first grade of primary education, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEAdolescent birth rateResourceNationalUNPD/EDGEAdolescent birth rate by economic quintileResourceNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsAdult mortality 15-34 years by causeResourceNationalWHO/EDGEAdult mortality 35-59 years by causeResourceNationalWHO/EDGEAdvocacy for rights and legislationParticipation N/AAge at first birth (Women only)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysAge at first marriage (actual, by gender)ResourceNationalDemographic and Health SurveysAge at first marriage (median, by gender)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysAge at first sexual intercourse (actual, by gender)ResourceNationalDemographic and Health SurveysAge at first sexual intercourse (median, by gender)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysAge gap with spouseResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysAntenatal care coverage, at least four visitsResourceNationalUNICEF/EDGEAntenatal care coverage, at least one visitResourceNationalUNICEF/EDGEAspirations for education and jobs (Children and parents for children)Attitudes N/AAttitudes of couples to family planning (by gender - both agree, both disagree, agree but spouse opposed etc.)AttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysAttitudes to FGM and violence against womenAttitudes N/AAverage number of hours spent on paid and unpaid domestic work combined (total work burden), by sexResourceNationalILO/EDGEAverage number of hours spent on unpaid domestic work by sex (NB - Only partial separation of housework and childcare)ResourceNationalILO/EDGEBelief in equal rights between husband and wife in the familyAttitudes N/ABeliefs regarding male and female quality of life (better male, female or the same), by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research CenterBeliefs regarding most satisfying marriage - husband provides or both husband and wife have jobsAttitudesNationalPew Research CenterContraceptive prevalence among women who are married or in a union, aged 15-49Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalUNPD/EDGEControl over sexual relationsLeadership/decision making N/AControl over spouse selection and marriage timingLeadership/decision making N/ACriminal sanctions for sexual harassmentLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsCriminal sanctions for sexual harassment in employmentLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsCurrent marital status (by gender)ResourceNationalDemographic and Health SurveysCurrent use of any modern method of contraception (married women)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysDegree of sexual communication and negotiationLeadership/decision making N/ADegree to which duty bearers ensure that women have the chance to know what they’re due, how they can access this, and what to do in the event that they are denied information or servicesResource N/ADiscussion of family planning with spouse (by gender)ResourceNationalDemographic and Health SurveysDomestic violence legislation includes emotional abuseLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsDomestic violence legislation includes financial abuseLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsDomestic violence legislation includes physical abuseLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsDomestic violence legislation includes sexual abuseLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsDomestic violence legislation protects women in unmarried intimate relationshipsLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEducation gap with spouseResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysEducational attainment (lower secondary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEEducational attainment (post-secondary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEEducational attainment (primary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEEducational attainment (tertiary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEEducational attainment (upper secondary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEEffective transition rate from primary to secondary education (general programmes), by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEEnforcement of legislation related to the protection of human rights, as well as specially designed laws and judicial services to promote gender equityResource N/AEqual ability for a woman to be "head of household" or "head of family" in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual ability for a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual ability for a woman to travel outside her home in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEquality of process for men and women travelling outside the country - married and unmarried distinctionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEvidence of "missing women"ResourceNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexExistence of government office tasked with addressing sexual harassmentLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsExperience of crime and levels of crime reporting, by sexResourceNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Extent of training or networking among local women, as compared to men.Resource N/AFear of crime, by sexResourceNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Fear walking in neighbourhood, by sexResourceNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Female headed households, % of total householdsLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsFemale literacy levelsResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysFemale nutritional intakeResource N/AFemale school attendance ratesResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysFemicide ratesResource N/AGender attitudes/attitudes towards women in society (Also by strategic block e.g. government officials, trade unions etc.)Attitudes N/AGender parity index of the gross enrolment ratio in primary educationResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEGender parity index of the gross enrolment ratio in secondary educationResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEGender parity index of the gross enrolment ratio in tertiary educationResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEGirl child health outcomes - height for age, stunting, weight for height, BMIResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysGross enrolment ratio in secondary education, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEGross enrolment ratio in tertiary education, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEGross graduation ratio from lower secondary education, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEIdeal and actual number of children (actual and mean, by gender)Leadership/decision makingNationalDemographic and Health SurveysImbalances in definitions of adulteryLegal/Rights N/AIncrease/decrease in violence against womenResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysInequalities in child health indicators (vaccination rates, BMI, rates of malnutrition/stunting)ResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysKnowledge of laws around issues of women's social positions, status, equality etc.Resource N/ALaw guarantees equal women and men have the same right to be the legal guardian of a child during marriage (also impact of customary/traditional/religious laws)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLaw guarantees women and men have the same right to be the legal guardian of and have custody rights over a child after divorce (also impact of customary/traditional/religious laws) (Social Institutions and Gender Index)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLaws on sex selection technologyLegal/Rights N/A"Laws supporting women’s rights, access to resources and options"Legal/Rights N/ALegal age of marriage is the same for men and women (above/below 18)Legal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLegal age of marriage is the same for men and women, but customary/traditional/religious laws discriminate against some womenLegal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLegislation on rape recognises marital rapeLegal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLegislation on sexual harassment in educationLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegislation on sexual harassment in employmentLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegislation on sexual harassment in public spacesLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegislation on sexual harassment in service provisionLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegislation specifically addresses sexual harassmentLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegislation specifically addressing domestic violenceLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLevel of out-of-pocket health expenditure/public health spending/subsidies by genderResource N/ALife expectancy at age 60, by sexResourceNationalUNPD/EDGELife expectancy at birth, by sexResourceNationalUNDP/HDRLocal campaigns against domestic violenceLeadership/decision making N/ALocal campaigns against domestic violenceParticipation N/AMale and female perceptions of gender equalityAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyMale/Female performance at school in different subjectsResource N/AMaternal mortality ratioResourceNationalWHO/EDGEMean years of schooling, by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for StatisticsMobility of women/men within and outside their residential locality, as compared to men.Participation N/ANeed for family planning services amongst currently married womenAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysNumber of cases related to the legal rights of divorced and widowed women heard in local courts, and the results.Resource N/ANumber of cases related to women's rights heard in local courts, and their results.Participation N/ANumber of co-wives (women only)AttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysNumbers of women in local institutions (e.g. women's associations, consciousness raising or income generating groups, local churches, ethnic and kinship associations) relative to project area population,Participation N/ANumbers of women in positions of power in local organizationsLeadership/decision making N/ANursing and midwifery personnel per 1000 head of populationResourceNationalGlobal Health ObservatoryOutlawing of domestic violenceLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseParental control on marriageResource N/APercentage believing men and women should have equal rights, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research CenterPercentage of births attended by skilled health staffResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysPercentage of men and women accessing ICT's, internet and mobile phonesResource N/APercentage of men and women who believe it is justifiable for man to beat his wifeAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyPercentage of sexually active men/women not using modern contraception who don't want children for at least 2 yearsLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysPercentage of those supporting equal rights who believe more changes are needed, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research CenterPercentage of those supporting equal rights who believe most changes have been made, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research CenterPercentage of women aged 20-24 years who were married or in a union before age 18ResourceNationalUNICEF/EDGEPercentage of women ages 15-49 who believe a husband/partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife/partner for any of five reasonsAttitudesNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsPercentage of women with no say in own health careLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysPercentage of women with no say in visits to friendsLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysPercentage who believe university education is more important for a boy than a girl, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research CenterPercentage who believe women should have the right to decide if they wear a veil, by sexAttitudesNationalPew Research CenterPolitical, legal, religious support for options for divorce (or lack of active opposition)Legal/Rights N/APositive images of self, belief in one’s abilities, feelings of self-efficacyAttitudes N/APositive media images of women as well as their roles and contributionsAttitudes N/APresence of law requiring married woman to obey their husbandsLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsPresence of services and trained professionals for victims of VAWResource N/APresence of specific legislation on rapeLegal/RightsNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexPrevalence of FGM/cuttingResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysPrevalence of sexual harassmentResource N/APrimary education completion rate (proxy), by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEProportion of births attended by a skilled health professionalResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEProportion of ever-partnered women (aged 15-49) subjected to physical and/or sexual violence by a current or former intimate partner, in the last 12 monthsResourceNationalUNSD, WHO/EDGEProportion of households with access to mass media (radio, TV, internet), by sex of household headResourceNationalInternational Telecommunication Union/EDGEProportion of individuals using mobile/cellular telephones, by sexResourceNationalInternational Telecommunication Union/EDGEProportion of individuals using the internet, by sexResourceNationalInternational Telecommunication Union/EDGEProportion of women (aged 15-49) subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner, since age 15ResourceNationalUNSD, WHO/EDGERate at which the number of local justices/ prosecutors/ lawyers who are women/men is increasing/decreasing.Participation N/ARate at which the number of women/men in the local police force, by rank, is increasing or decreasing.Participation N/ARates of contact with courts, ease of obtaining assistance and bribes paid in process, by genderParticipationNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Rates of conviction for sexual assaultResource N/ARates of intimate partner violenceResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysReason for discontinuing contraceptive use (including husband disapproved and knowledge/access issues)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysReason for not using contraception (by gender, including spouse disapproval and knowledge/access issues)Leadership/decision makingNationalDemographic and Health SurveysReasons for female leaving schoolAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysReasons for non-reporting of crime, by sexAttitudesNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Reduction in the practice of dowryAttitudes N/ARegional/national trends in timing of marriage: political, legal, religious support for (or lack of active opposition to)Resource N/ARelationship skills demonstrated by male partnersAttitudes N/ARepealing of mitigating legislation around honour crimesLegal/Rights N/AReporting of crimes against womenParticipation N/ARepresentation of female in myth and ritualAttitudes N/ARight to social protectionLegal/Rights N/AScale of perceived freedom of choice and control over own life, by sexAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyScale of satisfaction with life, by sexAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveySeeking assistance in cases of domestic violenceLeadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSelf selection of spousesLeadership/decision making N/ASelf-reported final say in all decision categories (health case; large purchases; daily purchases; visits to family, relatives, friends; and what food to cook daily) (all women/married/non-married)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSelf-reported final say in own health care (all women/married/non-married)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSelf-reported final say in visits to family, relatives, friends (all women/married/non-married)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSelf-reported final say in what to cook daily (all women/married/non-married)Leadership/decision makingNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSex ratios of infant and under-five mortalityResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSexual relationships of non-married womenAttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysShare of female science, engineering, manufacturing and construction graduates at tertiary levelResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEShift in patriarchal norms (such as son preference)Attitudes N/ASpecialised court or procedure for cases of domestic violenceLegal/RightsNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsSystems providing easy access to contraception, safe abortion, reproductive health servicesResource N/ATeenage pregnancy and motherhoodResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysThe effect of the enforcement of legislation in terms of treatment of offenders against women.Resource N/ATotal fertility rates - births per womanResourceNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsTotal fertility rates - births per woman by economic quintileResourceNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsUnder-five mortality rate, by sexResourceNationalUNICEF/EDGEUnmet need for contraceptivesResourceNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysUse of judicial system to redress rights violationsLeadership/decision making N/AValue of male/female childAttitudes N/AWomen's attitude toward refusing sex with husband (Agreeing with all or none of specified reasons/specified reasons for refusal)AttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysWomen's attitude toward wife beating (justification for various reasons)AttitudesNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysWomen's participation in decision making (Self/joint with partner etc. - breakdown by five areas of decision making. For married or living together and not)Leadership/decision makingNationalDemographic and Health SurveysWomen's share of population aged 15-49 living with HIV/AIDSResourceNationalUNICEF/EDGEWomen’s access to modern transportationParticipation N/AWomen’s participation in extra-familial groups and social networksParticipation N/AWomen’s sense of inclusion and entitlementAttitudes N/A"Women’s visibility in and access to social spaces"Participation N/AYouth literacy rate of persons (15-24 years), by sexResourceNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE

 

Indicator types

Frequently asked questions

Leadership and decision-making

IndicatorDomainAvailable DataSourceAbility to make childbearing decisions: use contraception, access abortionSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysActions during pregnancy - food, work and seeking healthcareSocial N/AAgricultural production rates by genderEconomic N/AAutonomy over use of agricultural incomesEconomic N/AAverage household expenditure of female/male headed households on education/health.Economic N/ABreakdown of female CSO leadership by service delivery and advocacy organisationsPolitical N/ABudget size of CSO's led by men and womenPolitical N/AChanges in % of property controlled by women and men (land, houses, livestock), across socio-economic and ethnic groups.Economic N/AChanges in time-use in selected activities, particularly greater sharing by household members of unpaid housework and child-care.EconomicNationalILO/EDGEChief Justice is currently femalePoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsContact with officials, politicians and other leaders, as well as form and reason of contact, by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Contraceptive prevalence among women who are married or in a union, aged 15-49SocialNational & Sub-NationalUNPD/EDGEControl over sexual relationsSocial N/AControl over spouse selection and marriage timingSocial N/ADecision on use of earnings (Decision maker)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysDegree of sexual communication and negotiationSocial N/AFemale headed households, % of total householdsSocialNational & Sub-NationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsIdeal and actual number of children (actual and mean, by gender)SocialNationalDemographic and Health SurveysLocal campaigns against domestic violenceSocial N/AManagerial control of farmEconomic N/AManagerial control of loanEconomic N/ANumber for female justices on the constitutional courtPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsNumbers of women in positions of power in local organizationsSocial N/APercentage firms with female top managerEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsPercentage of firms owned by women, by sizeEconomicNationalILO/EDGEPercentage of men and women who voted in last election and reasons why, if notPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Percentage of sexually active men/women not using modern contraception who don't want children for at least 2 yearsSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysPercentage of women in decision-making positions in local government.Political N/APercentage of women in senior/junior decision making positions within civil society organisationsPolitical N/APercentage of women in senior/junior decision making positions within political partiesPolitical N/APercentage of women in senior/junior decision making positions within unions.Political N/APercentage of women with no say in own health careSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysPercentage of women with no say in visits to friendsSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysPresence of strong, autonomous feminist movementsPolitical N/AProfiling of women's issues in policymakingPolitical N/AProportion of employed who are employers, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGEProportion of employed who are own-account workers, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGEProportion of female ministers in charge of "feminine"/"masculine" ministriesPolitical N/AProportion of female ministers in charge of "high prestige"/"low prestige" ministriesPolitical N/AProportion of females among tertiary education teachers or professorsPoliticalNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEPublic expenditure on female priorities/needsPolitical N/AReason for discontinuing contraceptive use (including husband disapproved and knowledge/access issues)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysReason for not using contraception (by gender, including spouse disapproval and knowledge/access issues)SocialNationalDemographic and Health SurveysRelative rates of female to male migrationEconomic N/A"Representation of women’s economic interests in macroeconomic policies, state and federal budgets"Economic N/ARepresentation of women’s interests in effective lobbies and interest groupsPolitical N/ASeeking assistance in cases of domestic violenceSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSelf selection of spousesSocial N/ASelf-reported final say in all decision categories (health case; large purchases; daily purchases; visits to family, relatives, friends; and what food to cook daily) (all women/married/non-married)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSelf-reported final say in making daily purchases (all women/married/non-married)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSelf-reported final say in making large purchases (all women/married/non-married)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSelf-reported final say in own health care (all women/married/non-married)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSelf-reported final say in visits to family, relatives, friends (all women/married/non-married)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSelf-reported final say in what to cook daily (all women/married/non-married)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysSelf-reported percentage of men and women who vote in national electionsPoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyShare of female judgesPoliticalNationalUNODC/EDGEUse of judicial system to redress rights violationsSocial N/AWomen's control over earnings (who decides how to spend money - self/joint with partner etc. For married or living together and not)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysWomen's participation in decision making (Self/joint with partner etc. - breakdown by five areas of decision making. For married or living together and not)SocialNationalDemographic and Health SurveysWomen's share of government ministerial positionsPoliticalNationalInter-Parliamentary Union/EDGEWomen's share of managerial positionsEconomicNationalILO/EDGE

 

Frequently asked questions

Attitudes and perceptions

IndicatorDomainAvailable DataSourceAcceptability of divorceSocial N/AAspirations for education and jobs (Children and parents for children)Social N/AAttitudes of couples to family planning (by gender - both agree, both disagree, agree but spouse opposed etc.)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysAttitudes to FGM and violence against womenSocial N/AAttitudes to women in labour marketEconomic N/AAwareness of own power in relation to others, and reliance of others on them. Ability to see leverage and mutual advantage in joint actions both for self and for others.Political N/ABelief in equal rights between husband and wife in the familySocial N/ABeliefs regarding male and female quality of life (better male, female or the same), by sexSocialNationalPew Research CenterBeliefs regarding most satisfying marriage - husband provides or both husband and wife have jobsSocialNationalPew Research CenterCollective awareness of injustice, potential of mobilizationPolitical N/ADomestic support for political engagementPolitical N/AExtent to which officials and politicians listen to people like the respondent, by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Family support for political engagementPolitical N/AFear of eviction after divorce, separation or widowhoodEconomic N/AGender attitudes/attitudes towards women in society (Also by strategic block e.g. government officials, trade unions etc.)Social N/AMale and female perceptions of gender equalitySocialNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyNeed for family planning services amongst currently married womenSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysNumber of co-wives (women only)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysPercentage believe men make better political leaders than women, by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Percentage believe women have the same chance of election to office as men , by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Percentage believing men and women should have equal rights, by sexSocialNationalPew Research CenterPercentage of men and women who believe it is justifiable for man to beat his wifeSocialNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyPercentage of those supporting equal rights who believe more changes are needed, by sexSocialNationalPew Research CenterPercentage of those supporting equal rights who believe most changes have been made, by sexSocialNationalPew Research CenterPercentage of women ages 15-49 who believe a husband/partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife/partner for any of five reasonsSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsPercentage who believe that men get more opportunities for jobs that pay well, by sexEconomicNationalPew Research CenterPercentage who believe university education is more important for a boy than a girl, by sexSocialNationalPew Research CenterPercentage who believe women should have the right to decide if they wear a veil, by sexSocialNationalPew Research CenterPercentage who think that when jobs are scarce, men should have more right to a job, by sexEconomicNationalPew Research CenterPercentage who think women should be able to work outside the home, by sexEconomicNationalPew Research CenterPerception of economic autonomyEconomic N/APositive images of self, belief in one’s abilities, feelings of self-efficacySocial N/APositive media images of women as well as their roles and contributionsSocial N/AReasons for female leaving schoolSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysReasons for non-reporting of crime, by sexSocialNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Reduction in the practice of dowrySocial N/ARelationship skills demonstrated by male partnersSocial N/ARepresentation of female in myth and ritualSocial N/AScale of perceived freedom of choice and control over own life, by sexSocialNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyScale of satisfaction with life, by sexSocialNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveySexual relationships of non-married womenSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysShift in patriarchal norms (such as son preference)Social N/ASkills, confidence, and knowledge to hold duty bearers and the powerful accountable; recognition that human rights bring, also, forms of accountability to every individualPolitical N/AValue of male/female childSocial N/AWillingness to complain and take action on issues e.g. health care provisionPolitical N/AWomen's attitude toward refusing sex with husband (Agreeing with all or none of specified reasons/specified reasons for refusal)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysWomen's attitude toward wife beating (justification for various reasons)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysWomen’s sense of inclusion and entitlementSocial N/A

Frequently asked questions

Legal measures and constitutional rights

IndicatorDomainAvailable DataSourceAbility of married woman to convey citizenship to non-national spouse in the same way as a manPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsAbility of woman to confer citizenship to her children in the same way as a man - married/unmarried distinctionPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsAllocations the state offers for important services, guarantees, and enforcement mechanisms around issues central to gender equityEconomic N/ACompulsory birth registrationPolitical N/AConstitutional access to public goodsPolitical N/AConstitutional equality - existence of non-discrimination clause, non-discrimination clause mentions gender, guarantee equality before the lawPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsCriminal sanctions for sexual harassmentSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsCriminal sanctions for sexual harassment in employmentSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsCustomary law - legal recognition of customary law as a source of law, validity/invalidity of customary law where it violates constitutional provisions on non-discrimination/equalityPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsDomestic violence legislation includes emotional abuseSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsDomestic violence legislation includes financial abuseSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsDomestic violence legislation includes physical abuseSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsDomestic violence legislation includes sexual abuseSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsDomestic violence legislation protects women in unmarried intimate relationshipsSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual ability for a woman to be "head of household" or "head of family" in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual ability for a woman to choose where to live in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual ability for a woman to get a job or pursue a trade or profession in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual ability for a woman to open a bank account in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual ability for a woman to register a business in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual ability for a woman to sign a contract in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual ability for a woman to travel outside her home in the same way as a man - married and unmarried distinctionSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEqual pay legislationEconomicNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseEquality of process for men and women travelling outside the country - married and unmarried distinctionSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsEquality of process for men and women when applying for passports and national ID cards - including married/unmarried woman distinctionPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsExistence of government office tasked with addressing sexual harassmentSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsExplicit constitutional provisions or laws on the rights of womenPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsGender equity of evidentiary weight of testimony in courtPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsImbalances in definitions of adulterySocial N/ALaw guarantees equal women and men have the same right to be the legal guardian of a child during marriage (also impact of customary/traditional/religious laws)SocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLaw guarantees women and men have the same right to be the legal guardian of and have custody rights over a child after divorce (also impact of customary/traditional/religious laws) (Social Institutions and Gender Index)SocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLaws on sex selection technologySocial N/A"Laws supporting women’s rights, access to resources and options"Social N/ALegal age of marriage is the same for men and women (above/below 18)SocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLegal age of marriage is the same for men and women, but customary/traditional/religious laws discriminate against some womenSocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLegal equality of male and female rights to access financial services i.e. credit, bank accounts and loans (impact of customary, traditional and religious practices)EconomicNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLegal equality of male and female rights to own, use and control land (impact of customary, traditional and religious practices)EconomicNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLegal equality of male and female rights to own, use and control non-land assets (impact of customary, traditional and religious practices)EconomicNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLegal quota levels for women in national parliamentPoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegal quota levels for women on corporate boardsEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegal quotas for the appointment of women in land dispute resolution committeesEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseLegal quotas for the appointment of women in land management and administration committeesEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseLegal recognition of customary courtsPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegal recognition of personal law courtsPoliticalNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegal rights of surviving spouse in terms of rights to the matrimonial house for lifeEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseLegislation on rape recognises marital rapeSocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexLegislation on sexual harassment in educationSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegislation on sexual harassment in employmentSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegislation on sexual harassment in public spacesSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegislation on sexual harassment in service provisionSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegislation specifically addresses sexual harassmentSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegislation specifically addressing domestic violenceSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsLegislation to allow joint tenure for urban and rural property with marital community of property (and joint administration) as the default)Economic N/ALength of maternity leave (weeks)EconomicNationalOECD IAEG-GSLength of paid paternity leave (weeks)EconomicNationalOECD IAEG-GSMarried couples jointly share legal responsibility for financially maintaining the family's expensesEconomicNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsMaternity leave benefits (percentage of wages paid in covered period)Economic N/AOutlawing of domestic violenceSocialNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseParental leave with job protection (weeks)EconomicNationalOECD IAEG-GSPolitical, legal, religious support for options for divorce (or lack of active opposition)Social N/APresence of gender budgetsPolitical N/APresence of law requiring married woman to obey their husbandsSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsPresence of specific legislation on rapeSocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexQuota mechanisms for representation in local government (party lists, reserved seats, proportion of candidates, voluntary/mandatory etc.)PoliticalNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseQuota mechanisms for representation in national legislature (party lists, reserved seats, proportion of candidates, voluntary/mandatory etc.)PoliticalNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseQuota mechanisms for women on corporate boardsEconomicNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseRegulations on male/female work hours and rolesEconomicNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseRegulations on part-time work (e.g. bans or limitations)Economic N/ARepealing of mitigating legislation around honour crimesSocial N/ARight to be a member of political partyPolitical N/ARight to hold public officePolitical N/ARight to social protectionSocial N/ASignatory of international agreements and principles on women's rights e.g. CEDAW, Beijing Plan for ActionPolitical N/ASpecialised court or procedure for cases of domestic violenceSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsThe legal framework includes provisions for the promotion of women’s rights to land, property, and/or productive resources.EconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseTotal duration of paid maternity and parental leave (weeks)EconomicNationalOECD IAEG-GSUnder the law of succession, the surviving spouse is entitled to a minimum share of matrimonial propertyEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseWhether sons and daughters have equal inheritance rights (and impact of traditional/religious/customary law)EconomicNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexWhether widows and widowers have equal inheritance rights (and impact of traditional/religious/customary law)EconomicNationalSocial Institutions and Gender Index

 

Frequently asked questions

Participation

IndicatorDomainAvailable DataSourceAdvocacy for rights and legislationSocial N/AEmployment rate of persons aged 25-49 with a child under age 3 living in a household and with no children living in the household, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGEEquality between men and women for private sector employmentEconomicNationalWorld Bank Women, Business and the Law databaseFemale employment levels and source of earningEconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysFemale participation in village meetings (questions, complaints, requests etc.)Political N/AFemale professional and technical workers (as percentage of total)Economic N/AImpact of maternity laws on hiring of womenEconomic N/AInformal employment as a proportion of total non-agricultural employment, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGELabour force participation rate for persons aged 15-24, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGELabour force participation rate for persons aged 15+, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGELocal campaigns against domestic violenceSocial N/AMobility of women/men within and outside their residential locality, as compared to men.Social N/ANumber of cases related to women's rights heard in local courts, and their results.Social N/ANumber of years of a female president or prime minister in the last 50 yearsPolitical N/ANumbers of women in local institutions (e.g. women's associations, consciousness raising or income generating groups, local churches, ethnic and kinship associations) relative to project area population,Social N/AOccupation (by gender)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysParticipation rates in religious groups, voluntary associations or community group, by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Participation rates in various forms of civic activity, by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Participation rates in various forms of political activity during the last election, by sexPoliticalNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Percentage distribution of employed population in agricultural sector, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGEPercentage distribution of employed population in industrial sector, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGEPercentage distribution of employed population in service sector, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGEPercentage of women participating in political actions - signing a petition, joining in boycotts, attending peaceful demonstrations, joining strikes, any other (any time and recent, absolute and relative to men)PoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyPercentage of women who are members of - churches, environmental organisations, humanitarian or charitable organisations, consumer organisations, self-help/mutual aid groups - absolute and relative to menPoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyPercentage of women who are members of professional associations - absolute and relative to menPoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyPercentage of women who are union members - absolute and relative to menPoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyPercentage of women/men who are members of political parties - absolute and relative to menPoliticalNational & Sub-NationalWorld Values SurveyPresence of specific committees on gender issues with "mainstreaming" missionPolitical N/APresence of women in parliamentary committees and caucusesPolitical N/APresence of women's caucuses (lower/upper house, formal/informal, cross party status, female only status, rules status, presence of strategic plan, presence of communication plan, issues covered - family, gender, other)PoliticalNationalInter-Parliamentary UnionProportion of candidates for public office that are femalePolitical N/AProportion of employed working part-time, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGEProportion of seats held by women in national parliament (upper and lower house)PoliticalNationalInter-Parliamentary Union/EDGEProportion of victorious candidates for public office that are femalePolitical N/AProportion of women who migrate internationallyEconomic N/ARate at which the number of local justices/ prosecutors/ lawyers who are women/men is increasing/decreasing.Social N/ARate at which the number of women/men in the local police force, by rank, is increasing or decreasing.Social N/ARates of contact with courts, ease of obtaining assistance and bribes paid in process, by genderSocialNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Relative male/female under-employment ratesEconomic N/AReporting of crimes against womenSocial N/AShare of female police officersPoliticalNationalUNODC/EDGEWomen’s access to modern transportationSocial N/AWomen’s involvement and/or representation in local trade associations and access to marketsEconomic N/AWomen’s participation in extra-familial groups and social networksSocial N/AWomen’s participation in peace processes, agreements and negotiationsPolitical N/AWomen’s representation in high paying jobs; women CEOsEconomic N/A"Women’s visibility in and access to social spaces"Social N/AYouth unemployment rate for persons aged 15-24, by sexEconomicNationalILO/EDGE

 

Frequently asked questions

Access to resources

IndicatorDomainAvailable DataSourceAccess to anti-retroviral drug, by sexSocialNationalWHO/EDGEAccess to fertiliser and agricultural inputsEconomic N/AAccess to information and skills that a woman deems helpful or necessary; awareness that such information/skills even existSocial N/AAccounting knowledgeEconomic N/AAdjusted net enrolment rate in primary education by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEAdjusted net intake rate to the first grade of primary education, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEAdolescent birth rateSocialNationalUNPD/EDGEAdolescent birth rate by economic quintileSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsAdult mortality 15-34 years by causeSocialNationalWHO/EDGEAdult mortality 35-59 years by causeSocialNationalWHO/EDGEAge at first birth (Women only)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysAge at first marriage (actual, by gender)SocialNationalDemographic and Health SurveysAge at first marriage (median, by gender)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysAge at first sexual intercourse (actual, by gender)SocialNationalDemographic and Health SurveysAge at first sexual intercourse (median, by gender)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysAge gap with spouseSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysAntenatal care coverage, at least four visitsSocialNationalUNICEF/EDGEAntenatal care coverage, at least one visitSocialNationalUNICEF/EDGEArea dedicated to traditionally female cropsEconomic N/AAvailability of government provided childcareEconomic N/AAverage number of hours spent on paid and unpaid domestic work combined (total work burden), by sexSocialNationalILO/EDGEAverage number of hours spent on unpaid domestic work by sex (NB - Only partial separation of housework and childcare)SocialNationalILO/EDGEChanges in % of property owned by women and men (land, houses, livestock), across socio-economic and ethnic groups.Economic N/AChildcare while working (access and type)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health Surveys"Community mobilization for rights; campaigns for rights awareness; effective local enforcement of legal rights"Political N/ACurrent marital status (by gender)SocialNationalDemographic and Health SurveysCurrent use of any modern method of contraception (married women)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysDegree of turnover in women's group leadershipPolitical N/ADegree to which duty bearers ensure that women have the chance to know what they’re due, how they can access this, and what to do in the event that they are denied information or servicesSocial N/ADiscussion of family planning with spouse (by gender)SocialNationalDemographic and Health SurveysDistribution of agricultural holders, by sexEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseDistribution of agricultural land area owned, by sexEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseDistribution of agricultural land value owned, by sexEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseDistribution of agricultural landowners, by sexEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseEducation gap with spouseSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysEducational attainment (lower secondary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEEducational attainment (post-secondary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEEducational attainment (primary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEEducational attainment (tertiary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEEducational attainment (upper secondary) of the population aged 25 and older, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEEffective transition rate from primary to secondary education (general programmes), by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEEnforcement of legislation related to the protection of human rights, as well as specially designed laws and judicial services to promote gender equitySocial N/AEstimated GNI per capita, by sexEconomicNationalUNDP/HDREvidence of "missing women"SocialNationalSocial Institutions and Gender IndexExperience of crime and levels of crime reporting, by sexSocialNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Exposure to mass media (newspapers, radio and television; by gender)PoliticalNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysExtent of training or networking among local women, as compared to men.Social N/AExtent to which women's groups form larger alliances and coalitions to achieve collective gainsPolitical N/AFear of crime, by sexSocialNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Fear walking in neighbourhood, by sexSocialNationalGlobal Barometer Surveys (including regional Partners - Afro Barometer, Arab Barometer, Asian Barometer, Eurasia Barometer and Latino Barometer)Female literacy levelsSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysFemale nutritional intakeSocial N/AFemale school attendance ratesSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysFemicide ratesSocial N/AFunding for gender equality initiativesPolitical N/AGender gap in wagesEconomicNationalILO/EDGEGender parity index of the gross enrolment ratio in primary educationSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEGender parity index of the gross enrolment ratio in secondary educationSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEGender parity index of the gross enrolment ratio in tertiary educationSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEGirl child health outcomes - height for age, stunting, weight for height, BMISocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysGross enrolment ratio in secondary education, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEGross enrolment ratio in tertiary education, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEGross graduation ratio from lower secondary education, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEIncidence of agricultural landownership, by sexEconomicNationalFAO Gender and Land Rights DatabaseIncrease/decrease in violence against womenSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysIndividual/Joint landholding with spouseEconomic N/AInequalities in child health indicators (vaccination rates, BMI, rates of malnutrition/stunting)SocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysKnowledge of laws around issues of women's social positions, status, equality etc.Social N/A"Knowledge of legal rights; domestic support for exercising rights"Political N/AKnowledge of political system and means of access to it (absolute and relative)Political N/ALevel of out-of-pocket health expenditure/public health spending/subsidies by genderSocial N/ALife expectancy at age 60, by sexSocialNationalUNPD/EDGELife expectancy at birth, by sexSocialNationalUNDP/HDRMale/Female performance at school in different subjectsSocial N/AMaternal mortality ratioSocialNationalWHO/EDGEMean years of schooling, by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for StatisticsNumber of cases related to the legal rights of divorced and widowed women heard in local courts, and the results.Social N/ANursing and midwifery personnel per 1000 head of populationSocialNationalGlobal Health ObservatoryParental control on marriageSocial N/APercentage of available credit, financial and technical support services going to women/men from government/non-government sources.Economic N/APercentage of births attended by skilled health staffSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysPercentage of men and women accessing ICT's, internet and mobile phonesSocial N/APercentage of women aged 20-24 years who were married or in a union before age 18SocialNationalUNICEF/EDGEPercentage of women with birth certificatesPolitical N/APolitical funding networks/mechanisms for female candidatesPolitical N/APossession of formal/legal proof of tenure or ownershipEconomic N/APresence of machinery to monitor and sanction on equality legislation (e.g. independent ombudsman, political committees, service delivery contracts)Political N/APresence of services and trained professionals for victims of VAWSocial N/APrevalence of FGM/cuttingSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysPrevalence of sexual harassmentSocial N/APrimary education completion rate (proxy), by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEProportion of adult population owning land, by sexEconomicNationalWorld Bank/EDGEProportion of births attended by a skilled health professionalSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEProportion of children under age 3 in formal careEconomicNationalOECD/EDGEProportion of ever-partnered women (aged 15-49) subjected to physical and/or sexual violence by a current or former intimate partner, in the last 12 monthsSocialNationalUNSD, WHO/EDGEProportion of households with access to mass media (radio, TV, internet), by sex of household headSocialNationalInternational Telecommunication Union/EDGEProportion of individuals using mobile/cellular telephones, by sexSocialNationalInternational Telecommunication Union/EDGEProportion of individuals using the internet, by sexSocialNationalInternational Telecommunication Union/EDGEProportion of population with access to credit, by sexEconomicNationalWorld Bank/EDGEProportion of women (aged 15-49) subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner, since age 15SocialNationalUNSD, WHO/EDGERates of conviction for sexual assaultSocial N/ARates of intimate partner violenceSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysRegional/national trends in timing of marriage: political, legal, religious support for (or lack of active opposition to)Social N/ARelative contribution of women’s earnings to household expenditures (For married/living together and otherwise)EconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysRelative poverty of female headed householdsEconomicNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysRelative size and profitability of female farming plotsEconomic N/ARelative size and profitability of female owned firms (absolute and sectors)Economic N/ASalary/wage differentials between women and men for similar workEconomic N/ASex ratios of infant and under-five mortalitySocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysShare of female science, engineering, manufacturing and construction graduates at tertiary levelSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGEStrength as a voting blocPolitical N/ASystems providing easy access to contraception, safe abortion, reproductive health servicesSocial N/ATeenage pregnancy and motherhoodSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysThe effect of the enforcement of legislation in terms of treatment of offenders against women.Social N/ATotal fertility rates - births per womanSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsTotal fertility rates - births per woman by economic quintileSocialNationalWorld Bank Gender Equality Data and StatisticsUnder-five mortality rate, by sexSocialNationalUNICEF/EDGEUnmet need for contraceptivesSocialNational & Sub-NationalDemographic and Health SurveysWomen's share of population aged 15-49 living with HIV/AIDSSocialNationalUNICEF/EDGEYouth literacy rate of persons (15-24 years), by sexSocialNationalUNESCO Institute for Statistics/EDGE

 

Joseph Wales