This report reviews the trade performance of Uganda since about 1990, and relates this to evidence on trends in poverty and the livelihoods of the poor. The focus is primarily economic, and specifically on how trade has affected poverty. There were several forces at play in the economy during the 1990s that impacted on poverty. These included trade liberalisation and trade performance (which is only in part determined by Uganda’s own trade policy), but there were also large aid inflows. Although we will make reference to other factors where appropriate, our concern is with identifying any ways in which trade policy and performance has affected the poor. Trade may affect poverty by contributing to increased or decreased incomes or opportunities, or by altering the prices the poor face for the main commodities they consume. All of these linkages will be addressed.