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Tracking change in livelihoods, service delivery and governance: Evidence from a 2012-2015 panel survey in Pakistan

Research reports

Written by Georgina Sturge, Jessica Hagen-Zanker, Richard Mallett

Research reports

Of the two million displaced by the civil conflict in Swat and Lower Dir, Pakistan, many have since returned, due to the end of government military operations. Alongside conflict damage, floods have destroyed much of the infrastructure in the districts. As a result, national and international aid programmes have shifted from humanitarian to development focused interventions.

This report is based on a two wave survey carried out in the region. The surveys, conducted 2012 and 2015, measured changes in livelihoods, access to basic services, social protection and livelihood assistance and their perceptions of governance. In particular, the report explores people’s perceptions of state legitimacy at the point of transition from humanitarian to development assistance.

Key findings

  • Some, though not all, education, water and health services may contribute to perceptions of greater state legitimacy.
  • Government and donor programmes need to be able to adjust to changes over time.
  • Legitimacy is also about safety and security and is impacted by the historical experiences of a region.

Download the report from the Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium's website.

Babar Shahbaz, Abid Suleri, Mohsin Ali and Huma Khan, with Georgina Sturge, Richard Mallett and Jessica Hagen-Zanker