This Background Paper examines the use of vouchers to provide seed and other agricultural inputs to farmers affected by disaster. While vouchers have been used to provide various different types of emergency inputs, particular experience has been gained in recent years of seed vouchers, hence the focus here. The paper contributes to a research project by the Humanitarian Policy Group (HPG) analysing recent experiences of cash- and voucher-based responses to supply people with assistance in emergencies. It adopts a case study approach, detailing recent experiences of vouchers and agricultural input fairs in Ethiopia and Mozambique. It is based on available data and documentation, together with interviews with individuals from donor agencies, international, governmental and nongovernmental organisations, and the private sector who have been involved in voucher responses in the two countries.