This paper provides a rapid review of recent literature on international practice and experience in supporting pro-poor service provision in fragile states, focusing on multilateral and bilateral donors’ approaches. The overall review consists of three sectoral reports (health, water/sanitation and education) together with a Synthesis. This paper constitutes a literature review of the
water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector. The purpose of the literature review was to inform the Office of Development Effectiveness’ evaluation of service delivery and contribute to a wider effort within AusAID to better understand donor engagement in fragile environments.