This report is a case study of humanitarian protection in northern Uganda. It looks at the evolving role of humanitarian action to encompass 'protection orientated' work. The paper explores some of the modalities of this emerging area of humanitarian intervention and identifies a spectrum of protection activities. It builds on the findings of ongoing work in the Humanitarian Policy Group aimed at clarifying 'the terms of the debate and examine how agencies, donors and other actors interpret the various concepts of security and protection through policy and practice’. This is part of a series of case studies which aim to analyse the application in practice of agencies’ protection policies, and the effectiveness of their protection programming. This study used the same basic methodology as the other two papers, in particular document reviews and in-depth qualitative interviews with key humanitarian actors in Kampala, Gulu and Pader.