The purpose of this paper is not to arrive at conclusions about biotechnology’s relevance for agricultural development, but rather to point out certain implications and weaknesses in the arguments on both sides. Although the presentation attempts to be even-handed, it must be acknowledged that the paper is motivated by unease over the nature of the NGO case. The paper begins by looking at some of the major arguments that motivate the debate on biotechnology. It then turns to examine how the debate is conducted in the North and the South. The paper concludes by drawing implications for NGOs engaged in agricultural development in the South.