This study was undertaken in the context of the Neuchatel Initiative, which is a network of donors for the exchange of experience on extension reform. The objective of the study is to discuss the relevance of extension to the poor in the context of increased market integration and the dynamic policy environment in Vietnam. It discusses the current and potential role of extension in supporting the livelihoods of the poor in Vietnam, and the conclusions that can be drawn for this role, as the nature of poverty changes and thereby also the focus of poverty alleviation measures. New challenges arise in relation to the scope of what extension should address. What are the constraints and opportunities for pro-poor extension?