This case study of Uganda is one of several undertaken to support reflections of the Neuchâtel Group on issues related to extension, poverty and vulnerability. The intention is to bring the broad issues down to country level, where many policies that impact on how extension relates to poverty reduction and vulnerability amelioration are constructed. Uganda is an interesting case for several reasons. It is widely recognised as having made great strides in mainstreaming a poverty eradication agenda into government policy. This has brought encouraging signs of poverty reduction in a way that may progress to help achieve the International Development Targets. Furthermore, the notion of extension has recently undertaken a radical shift, with responsibility for it being devolved to local governments and contracting-out being firmly on the agenda. Many of the developments are, therefore, compliant with the Neuchâtel Group’s Common Framework on Agricultural Extension.