This paper summarises the conclusions of a four-country study that has examined the linkages between environmental policies and outcomes, public expenditure on the environment and the influence of different modalities of development cooperation. Four
short country studies of Ghana, Mali, Mozambique and Tanzania were conducted between September and December 2007. A review of relevant literature on the environment and on
the treatment within budgets and budget support processes of other cross-cutting issues, such as gender, was also undertaken. It has been produced primarily for government officials in partner countries and their environment/natural resources counterparts in donor agencies but it will also be useful for non-environment specialists.