This background paper follows the PEAP Summary document in treating poverty monitoring and analysis as including the monitoring of intermediate factors influencing poverty outcomes, as well as tracking and analysing those outcomes themselves. It argues that a relative shift of attention from final outcomes to intermediate processes is called for in Uganda. This particularly affects the future use of the resources of UPPAP. The paper reviews the respective strengths and weaknesses of survey-based and participatory methods. It looks first at this issue in general terms, and then focuses respectively on the monitoring of poverty outcomes and PEAP implementation. Emphasis is placed on the fact that the methods have different comparative advantages, and that the productive ways of combining them take this into account.