There is interest in wildlife farming in South America, but the underlying objectives are unclear. The market for bushmeat in South America is limited and unlikely to grow rapidly. The justification in terms of satisfying a growing demand is therefore lacking. There also seems to be confusion between the aims of domestication for meat production and animal conservation. This paper will present two issues of importance: the costs of producing meat in wildlife farms, and a framework for policy makers on how to react to initiatives promoting wildlife farming for meat production. The first of these issues is largely South America-specific; the second should be directly applicable in other regions of the world.