In 2016, development assistance totalling US$142.6 billion was spent by aid donor countries to address development, humanitarian aid and refugee assistance globally, with more than 140 countries eligible to receive aid. This record high for development spending does not include the additional billions spent by new or emerging donor countries, private foundations, NGOs, and others engaging in development activities outside the Official Development Assistance envelope. In this chapter, we argue that development assistance from both established donors and emerging aid providers is shaped by development norms of donorship and partnership, respectively. Despite the longer history and articulation of donorship norms, the challenge posed by emerging partnership norms has left donorship in a state of flux (Gulrajani & Swiss, 2017).
Nilima Gulrajani and Liam Swiss