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Strengthening inclusion of the poor in investments in urban water and sanitation

This study examines three urban water and sanitation projects in sub-Saharan Africa supported by the International Development Association (IDA). It will explore the extent to which these projects improve the delivery of services to poor populations through inclusion of the poor in project planning, design and implementation. The aim of the research is to draw lessons from both the achievements and the weaknesses of the selected projects in reaching poor populations, and make policy recommendations which will:

  • inform dialogue between governments, civil society organisations (CSOs) and the World Bank
  • contribute to lesson-learning by the World Bank and by CSOs, as well as other actors.

The study was commissioned by WaterAid and is being carried out in partnership with SOAS (School of Oriental and African Studies), University of London.

The study will examine how far investments in UWSS have reached the poor through the lens of ‘inclusion’, here used to mean the equitable inclusion of poor populations in the planning and delivery of WSS services. Three dimensions of inclusion will be explored:

  • inclusion of poor populations in project preparation and planning processes
  • targeting and design of services for poor populations (e.g. network expansion, subsidies, low-cost approaches)
  • the extent and appropriateness of services received on the ground by poor populations


Josephine Tucker, Kate Bayliss, Alison Barrett

Supported by