This study, commissioned on behalf of the Botswana Trade and Poverty Programme, sought to provide empirical evidence of the economic and socio-economic importance of EU preferences for Botswana's meat industry. It further aimed to quantify and qualify the possible loss of these preferences with the end of the Cotonou Agreement's trading component at the end of 2007. The study gauged the impact of the loss of preferential market access on Botswana's rural economy and on patterns of employment and diversification more generally. It also looked at the potential effects of a less favourable trading regime on government income and expenditure, specifically with reference poverty alleivation / reduction. Finally, the study explored alternative regional and international trading arrangements for Botwana and outlined some key policy recommendations for the government to move forward in this important area.